Incredible Years - Teacher Classroom Management
Blueprints Program Rating: Promising
A program that provides teachers of children ages 3-8 years with classroom management strategies (positive and proactive teaching techniques, positive teacher-student relationships, and supportive teacher-parent relationships) to manage difficult and inappropriate child behavior problems, while promoting social, emotional, and academic competence.
- Conduct Problems
- Emotional Regulation
- Prosocial with Peers
- School - Environmental Strategies
- Social Emotional Learning
- Teacher Training
Continuum of Intervention
- Universal Prevention (Entire Population)
- Selective Prevention (Elevated Risk)
- Early Childhood (3-4) - Preschool
- Late Childhood (5-11) - K/Elementary
- Male and Female
- All Race/Ethnicity
- : Promising
- : Effective
- : Effective
- : 3.6-3.7
Program Information Contact
- Carolyn Webster-Stratton, Ph.D.
- University of Washington
Brief Description of the Program
The Incredible Years is a series of programs that addresses multiple risk factors across settings related to the development of conduct disorders in children. In all three training programs (Parent, Teacher, Child), trained facilitators use videotaped scenes to encourage group discussion, problem-solving, and sharing of ideas. The parent and child components of the series are described in separate write-ups.
Incredible Years Training for Teachers. This series for teachers of children ages 3-8 years emphasizes effective classroom management skills such as: the effective use of teacher attention, praise and encouragement, use of incentives for difficult behavior problems, proactive teaching strategies, how to manage inappropriate classroom behaviors, the importance of building positive relationships with students, and how to teach empathy, social skills and problem-solving in the classroom. Teachers receive 4-6 days of training spread out over several months.
See: Full Description
Evaluations of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program (IYTCM) show:
- Significant decreases in conduct problems and other problem behavior among intervention children, including noncompliant and off task behavior, compared to control group children;
- Significant improvements in behavior among high-risk intervention children, compared to control group children;
- Significant decreases in disruptive behavior, when mental health consultants are used as support for trained teachers;
- Significant reductions in conduct problems at home (with both mothers and fathers) and at school, when the IYTCM program is combined with other components of the Incredible Years Series.
- Significant improvement in school readiness
Program Effects on Risk and Protective Factors:
- Significant improvements in child self-regulation and cooperation skills;
- Significant improvements in interpersonal skills, and reduction in stress and social impairments, among high risk children;
- Increases in the use of positive classroom management strategies among program teachers and reductions in the use of negative classroom management strategies;
- When used in combination with other components of the Incredible Years Series, there are significant reductions in negative parenting and increases in positive parenting, increases in teacher-parent (mother) bonding, and significant program effects on teacher classroom management skills.
The multiple teacher-focused studies included diverse geographic populations, including Ireland, an inner-city population in Jamaica, Wales, the United Kingdom, and diverse populations in multiple Head Start centers in the United States with a majority of ethnic minority youth and parents.
Risk and Protective Factors
- School: Poor academic performance
- Individual: Problem solving skills, Skills for social interaction*
- Family: Parental involvement in education
- School: Opportunities for prosocial involvement in education, Rewards for prosocial involvement in school
*Risk/Protective Factor was significantly impacted by the program.
Training and Technical Assistance
TEACHING PRYAMID™ Workshop
Teacher Classroom Management Group Leader Training
This workshop will help group leaders learn how to deliver the evidence-based Teacher Classroom Management Training Program to preschool and early school-age teachers. The Teaching Pyramid™ teaches how to strengthen teacher classroom management strategies, promote children's prosocial behavior and school readiness (reading and writing skills), and reduce classroom aggression and non-cooperation with peers and teachers. Additionally the curriculum focuses on ways teachers can effectively collaborate with parents to support their school involvement and promote consistency from home to school.
After the training, leaders can offer this 6-day curriculum to groups of teachers in their schools. It may be delivered in monthly or weekly meetings and takes 42 hours for teachers to complete the entire series. The curriculum uses Webster-Stratton's book Incredible Teachers: Nurturing Children’s Social, Emotional and Academic Competence (Incredible Years Press) as the text for the teachers.
Group leaders should have a background in child development, social learning theory, adult group leadership skills and experience teaching children in the classroom. Education and accreditation as a teacher, psychologist, school counselor or completion of certification as an Incredible Years parent group leader or child group leader are requirements for certification in this program, in addition to attendance at this training workshop.
Teachers work in small groups to develop individual behavior plans for targeted students which they share with each other. Additionally the curriculum focuses on ways teachers can effectively collaborate with parents to support their school involvement and promote consistency from home to school in regard to their behavior and learning plans.
Brief Evaluation Methodology
Although the original (BASIC) Incredible Years parent program has been tested and evaluated numerously for more than 20 years, researchers have only more recently begun to test the effectiveness of the teacher component alone on child and teacher behavior outcomes. The main study, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in the UK conducted by Hutchings et al. (2013) found significant program effects on both teacher classroom strategies and child problem behaviors. Other RCT studies in Jamaica (Baker-Henningham et al., 2012) and Ireland (McGilloway et al., 2010) have also found significant favorable outcomes both for teachers and students. The teacher component has also been tested with some effectiveness in additional studies in Wales (Hutchings et al., 2007) and in Chicago, IL (Raver et al., 2008), including implementation with mental health professionals to support teachers in multiple Head Start centers in which parents were also encouraged to attend the parent training program (Williford & Shelton, 2008). Additional studies conducted in the US have also evaluated the additive effects of teacher-training in combination with parent training, child training or both (Webster-Stratton, Reid & Hammond, 2004; Reid, Webster-Stratton & Hammond, 2003; Webster-Stratton, Reid, & Hammond, 2001). Teacher outcomes among both 3-year-old and 4-year-old samples in Head Start centers in 10 states and four regions across the US were examined in a RCT conducted by Hsueh et al. (2014) and Morris et al. (2014). Webster-Stratton, Rei & Stoolmiller (2008) conducted an experimental study with 120 Seattle Head Start programs and 14 elementary schools to examine outcomes among preschool, kindergarten and first grade teachers. Using the same data set, Thompson et al. (n.d.) conducted an analysis on a sub-set of kindergarten teachers and their students entering kindergarten to examine teachers’ perception of parental involvement in school. Herman and Reinke (n.d.) conducted the same analysis as Thompson et al. (n.d.) but used a different sample of kindergarten through third grade teachers.
Kirkhaug et al., (2016) and Fossum et al. (2017) used identical evaluation designs. In both of these studies, the program was evaluated using an unmatched quasi-experimental pretest-posttest design. Schools were recruited from rural and urban municipalities in Norway, and schools that had previously implemented the program’s parent training portion were eligible to apply for participation in the intervention group (n=21 in Kirkhaug et al., 2016 and 46 in Fossum et al., 2017). Another 22 schools (in Kirkhaug et al., 2016) and 46 schools (in Fossum et al., 2017) were recruited to act as the waitlist control group provided they did not have any recent or ongoing evidence-based school behavior intervention programs. Participating children were selected by randomly selecting 7 children from each participating classroom in grades 1-3 and screening them for externalizing behaviors. For Kirkhaug et al. (2016), only those who scored in the clinical range were invited to participate (n=83) whereas in Fossum et al. (2017) these students were identified as “high-risk” and analyzed in moderation analyses. Participants were assessed at baseline and at a follow-up approximately 9 months later, when 80% (in Kirkhaug et al., 2016) and 74% (in Fossum et al., 2017) of students were retained. Primary outcome measures in both studies were externalizing behaviors, social skills, and student-teacher relationships.
Peer Implementation Sites
Contact Person: Judy Ohm or Angie Clair
Organization Name: Wilder Foundation, Parent Education Center
Address: 451 Lexington Pkwy. North, St. Paul, MN 55104
Organization URL: Wilder.org
Baker-Henningham, H. Scott, S., Jones, K., & Walker, S. (2012). Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 1-8. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.096834.
Carlson, J. J., Tiret, H. B., Bender, S. L., & Benson, L. (2011). The influence of group training in the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program on preschool teachers' classroom management strategies. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 27, 134-154.
Davenport, J., & Tansey, A. (2009). Outcomes of Incredible Years classroom management training with multiple schools. Article submitted for publication.
Herman, K. C. & Reinke, W. M. (n.d.). Improving teacher perceptions of parent involvement patterns: Findings from a group randomized trial. Unpublished report.
Hutchings, J., Daley, D., Jones, K., Martin, P., Bywater, T., & Gwyn, R. (2007). Early results from developing and researching the Webster-Stratton Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training Programme in North West Wales. Journal of Children's Services, 2, 15-26.
Hutchings, J., Martin-Forbes, P., Daley, D., & Williams, M.E. (2013). A randomized controlled trial of the impact of a teacher classroom management program on the classroom behavior of children with and without behavior problems. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 571-585.
Hsueh, J., Lowenstein, A. E., Morris, P., Mattera, S. K., & Bangser, M. (2014). Impacts of social-emotional curricula on three-year-olds: Exploratory findings from the Head Start CARES demonstration. Report from the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Kirkhaug, B., Drugli, M. B., Handegard, B. H., Lyderson, S., Asheim, M., & Fossum, S. (2016). Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: A quasi-experimental pre-post study. Boston Medical Center Psychiatry, 16(1), 362.
Mattera, S., Lloyd, C. M., Fishman, M., & Bangser, M. (2013). A First Look at the Head Start CARES Demonstration: Large-Scale Implementation of Programs to Improve Children’s Social-Emotional Competence. OPRE Report 2013-47. Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
McGilloway, S., Hyland, L., Mhaille, G. N., Lodge, A., O'Neill, D., Kelly, P., Leckey, Y., Bywater, T., Comiskey, C., & Donnelly, M. (2010). Positive classrooms, positive children: A randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management programme in an Irish context (short-term outcomes). A Summary Report for Archways.
Morris, P., Mattera, S. K., Castells, N., Bangser, M., Bierman, K., Raver, C. (2014). Impact findings from the Head Start CARES demonstration: National evaluation of three approaches to improving preschoolers’ social and emotional competence. Report from the Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Raver, C. C., Jones, S. M., Li-Grining, C. P., Metzger, M., Smallwood, K., & Sardin, L. (2008). Improving preschool classroom processes: Preliminary findings from a randomized trial implemented in Head Start settings. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 10-26.
Reid, M .J., Webster-Stratton, C., & Hammond, M. (2003). Follow-up of children who received the Incredible Years intervention for oppositional defiant disorder: Maintenance and prediction of 2-year outcomes.Behavior Therapy, 34, 471-491.
Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., Dong, N. (2016). The Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Program: Outcomes from a Group Randomized Trial. Unpublished manuscript (http://incredibleyears.com/wp-content/uploads/Reinke-IY-TCM-Program-Outcomes.pdf)
Thompson, A. M., Herman, K. C., Stormont, M. A., Reinke, W. M., & Webster-Stratton, C. (n.d.). Impact of Incredible Years on teacher perceptions of parental involvement: A latent transition analysis. Unpublished report.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2001). Preventing conduct problems, promoting social competence: A parent and teacher training partnership in Head Start. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(3), 283-302.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Hammond, M. (2004). Treating children with early-onset conduct problems: intervention outcomes for parent, child, and teacher training. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(1), 105-124.
Webster-Stratton, C., Reid, M. J., & Stoolmiller, M. (2008). Preventing conduct problems and improving school readiness: Evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher and Child Training Programs in high-risk schools. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 471-488.
Williford, A. P., and Shelton, T. L. (2008). Using mental health consultation to decrease disruptive behaviors in preschoolers: adapting an empirically-supported intervention. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 191-200.