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Positive Prevention PLUS

Blueprints Program Rating: Promising

A comprehensive school-based sexual health education and teen pregnancy prevention curriculum to improve high school students' communication and negotiation skills that will help them communicate assertively, abstain from sexual intercourse, and use birth control effectively.

Program Outcomes

  • Sexual Risk Behaviors

Program Type

  • School - Individual Strategies

Program Setting

  • School

Continuum of Intervention

  • Universal Prevention (Entire Population)


  • Late Adolescence (15-18) - High School


  • Male and Female


  • All Race/Ethnicity


  • Blueprints: Promising

Program Information Contact

For information about curriculum, content, or training:

Program Developer/Owner

  • Dr. Kim Clark and Christine Ridley, RN, MEd
  • California State University

Brief Description of the Program

Positive Prevention PLUS is a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program that consists of eleven 45-minute lessons aimed at students in grades 9 through 12. It is delivered by trained classroom teachers during the normal school day in science, health, or physical education courses. The 11-unit curriculum includes lessons on the benefits of abstinence, assertive communication, refusal skills, accessing reproductive health services, condom negotiation, and condom use. Students practice communication about abstinence and risk reduction skills through scripted role play and other interactive activities.

See: Full Description


Relative to the control group, students in the treatment group were less likely to report having had:

  • sexual intercourse
  • sexual intercourse without using birth control in the past 3 months.

Race/Ethnicity/Gender Details

The study did not provide differential analyses by gender or race/ethnicity; however, the sample contained students from high schools with large minority populations.

Training and Technical Assistance

Two-Day trainings are highly recommended for school teachers, school nurses, and community agency staff intending to present the Positive Prevention PLUS to adolescents and young adults in a classroom or community setting. Training is conducted by Cardea Services Inc. of Oakland, CA. Trainings include familiarization with the curriculum, laws, trauma-informed instruction, gender-related issues, plus actual participant teach-backs.


Training Agenda Overview

Day 1

  • California Education Code/California Healthy Youth Act and how it impacts instruction
  • Understanding values and diversity
  • Answering difficult questions
  • Curriculum introduction

Day 2

  • Curriculum overview
  • Modeling and practicing key activities
  • Curriculum-specific “teach backs”
  • Talking with parents about sexual health education
  • Next steps and resources

Brief Evaluation Methodology

LaChausse (2016) conducted a cluster randomized control trial in which 21 schools (with 4,267 students) were randomly assigned to a treatment group that received the Positive Prevention Plus program (n = 11 schools) or a control group that received no sexuality-related classroom instruction or school-wide activities (n = 10). Student self-report data were collected at baseline and 6-months following program completion. Outcome measures included three behavioral measures related to sexual activity: (1) ever had sexual intercourse; (2) ever been pregnant or gotten someone pregnant; and (3) ever had sexual intercourse without using birth control in the past 3 months.


LaChausse, R. G. (2016). A clustered randomized controlled trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program. American Journal of Public Health, 106(S1); S91-S96.