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Programs That Have Not Met Blueprints Criteria

More than 90 percent of interventions we review do not receive Blueprints certification. Supported through funding from Arnold Ventures, Blueprints has extended its classification system to provide an evidence rating for interventions that fail to meet Blueprints certification standards. In providing descriptive information on common problems that disqualify interventions from Blueprints certification, we hope to offer concrete ways moving forward that will improve the methods and analyses employed in future program evaluation efforts.

In addition to rating the certified interventions that meet Blueprints criteria, non-certified interventions are also now rated based on whether they are ineffective, harmful, or lack strong evidence. Interventions lacking strong supportive evidence are generally reviewed and rated internally by Blueprints staff, though the advisory board may also conclude an intervention they have reviewed lacked sufficient evidence for certification despite having made it through the internal review process. The rating for non-certified interventions is on a continuum, from having no credible evaluations to having some non-experimental evidence, to having limited experimental evidence, to having very strong experimental evidence. Individual studies are rated on the continuum and the program receives the rating of the study with the highest level of evidence. All programs in our database are provided a rating based on specific review rationale.

The interventions that have been reviewed and rated as lacking strong evidence are as follows:

1444 Programs
Program Rating Brief Description
Scared Straight Harmful

A crime prevention program that aims to prevent troubled youth from committing offenses through interaction with prisoners serving life sentences, who run confrontational and realistic rap sessions.

Take Charge of Your Life (New DARE) Harmful

A school-based intervention designed to prevent substance use in early adolescence through explanation of consequences and life skills instruction.

21st Century Community Learning Centers Program Inconclusive Evidence

An after-school academic assistance program that uses recreational and enrichment activities to decrease behavioral problems among youth.

4Rs Program Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based program designed to promote social-emotional learning and literacy development among children in grades K-5.

Aban Aya Youth Project Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based prevention program designed to reduce high risk behaviors among inner-city African American youth.

Ability School Engagement Program (ASEP) Inconclusive Evidence

A police-school collaboration program that aims to prevent truancy and other criminal offenses associated with truancy among adolescents by fostering collaboration between schools, parents, and the police.

Abracadabra (ABRA) Inconclusive Evidence

An online literacy program that aims to improve reading skills through phonic fluency and comprehension activities based around a series of age-appropriate texts.

Academic Language Instruction for All Students (ALIAS) Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based academic vocabulary development program that aims to bolster the language and literacy skills of middle school students. The program uses a text-based, four-skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) instructional approach that focuses on teaching high-utility, abstract academic vocabulary and developing word-learning ability.

Academic Tutoring and Social Skills Training Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based program that aims to improve peer acceptance and social skills in children who are rejected by peers, as well as promote academic achievement in children who struggle with reading and mathematics.

Academy for Community Education Inconclusive Evidence

An alternative school that combines intensive basic skills training with a community-based vocational apprenticeship program to increase students’ commitment to education and academic achievement.

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) Inconclusive Evidence

A psychotherapy intervention that aims to promote psychological flexibility and discourage psychological suffering through acceptance and mindfulness practices.

Achievement Mentoring – High School Inconclusive Evidence

A selective prevention program designed to enhance urban minority students’ school-related cognition and behaviors through adult mentoring and positive behavioral reinforcements.

Achieving Behaving Caring Project (ABC) Inconclusive Evidence

A whole-class prevention program that aims to develop social skills among children at risk for emotional disturbance. The program includes whole class social skills instruction and teams consisting of parents, teachers, and guidance counselors who identify strengths and problems of the child and develop goals for the child.

ACT Out! Inconclusive Evidence

A psychodramatic intervention presented to students by professional actors to increase social-emotional competence and reduce bullying.

Action-Based Diversion of Juvenile Offenders Inconclusive Evidence

Various youth diversion programs that focus on strengthening positive behavioral norms and constructive social ties though 80 hours of one-on-one training with upper-division college students.

Active and Healthy Families Inconclusive Evidence

A multi-component, family-centered, culturally- and linguistically-tailored intervention that aims to reduce obesity among Latino children.

Adolescence Cannabis Check-Up (ACCU) Inconclusive Evidence

A substance use prevention program that seeks to reduce the frequency of cannabis use among adolescents.

Adolescent Alcohol Prevention Trial (AAPT) Inconclusive Evidence

A substance use prevention program that aims to provide adolescents with the behavioral skills necessary to refuse drug offers, correct erroneous perceptions about the prevalence and acceptability of adolescent substance use, and establish conservative group norms regarding substance use.

Adolescent Cessation of Tobacco: Independent of Nicotine (ACTION) Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based tobacco abstinence skills program that seeks to promote tobacco use cessation through interactive games.

Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) Inconclusive Evidence

An outpatient alcohol and substance abuse treatment program that aims to replace activities that support alcohol and drug use with positive behaviors that support recovery by promoting positive family and peer relationships. It also aims to motivate caregiver participation in the treatment process, to increase the caregiver’s support of the adolescent’s abstinence, to provide information to the caregiver about effective parenting practices, and to help the adolescent and caregiver create a home and community environment conducive to recovery.

Adults in the Making (AIM) Inconclusive Evidence

A community-based program that aims to reduce alcohol and substance use among African American youth by strengthening family bonds and enhancing self-regulatory processes.

Advanced Supervision and Intervention Support Team (ASIST) Inconclusive Evidence

A prison diversion program that targets recidivism and reincarceration among high risk offenders with mental illnesses.

After-School Physical Activity Program for Black Girls Inconclusive Evidence

An after-school program that aims to reduce obesity and improve physical fitness among children by encouraging engagement in healthy amounts of physical activity.

Aktion Glasklar Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based alcohol reduction program that aims to combat youth drinking in Germany through instruction designed to increase knowledge, attitudes, and refusal skills surrounding alcohol consumption.

Alcohol Intervention Group (AIG) Inconclusive Evidence

A community-based program that aims to reduce the use of alcohol among adolescents through motivational interviewing techniques.

Alcohol Misuse Prevention Study Inconclusive Evidence

An alcohol prevention program designed to provide students with the social skills necessary to avoid alcohol misuse.

Alcohol Skills Training Program Inconclusive Evidence

A brief intervention that aims to reduce risky drinking behavior among college students through various techniques that target inaccurate perceptions of peer drinking patterns, challenge alcohol expectancy, and promote self-monitoring alcohol use behavior.

AlcoholEdu for College Inconclusive Evidence

An online harm reduction course that aims to prevent alcohol misuse among college freshmen.

All4You! Inconclusive Evidence

A school- and community-based intervention that aims to reduce HIV/STI and pregnancy incidence among adolescents.

Alternatives for Youth’s Advocacy Program (AFY) Inconclusive Evidence

A civil advocacy program that aims to reduce juvenile offender placements by providing youth with legal representation. This representation aids youth in accessing disability services and defense attorney support for dispositional planning.

American Indian Life Skills Development Curriculum Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based adaptive skills training program that aims to reduce behavioral and cognitive factors (e.g., depression, aggression, substance abuse) related to suicide.

Anchorage Coordinated Agency Network Inconclusive Evidence

An intensive oversight program that aims to supplement levels of juvenile probationer supervision by augmenting the supervision already provided by juvenile probation officers with one-to-one police officer/probation contact.

Annual Book Fairs Inconclusive Evidence

A low-involvement long-term intervention that aims to improve reading achievement among students from low-income families. The program also aims to prevent students’ reading loss by improving their access to books during the summer months.

Anxiety Management Training Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based universal prevention program that aims to help adolescent boys cope with stress and anxiety.

Arrest, Reporting to the Police, and Victim Services for Intimate Partner Violence (Practice) Inconclusive Evidence

A violence prevention program designed to prevent future physical and/or sexual victimization of abuse victims through instruction on policies used by police and other victims of intimate partner violence.

Assertiveness Training Inconclusive Evidence

A peer-led, group-based assertiveness training program that aims to teach assertive responses and decrease aggressive behavior among Black adolescent males.

ASSESS (Awareness, Skills, Self-efficacy/Self-esteem, and Social Support) Inconclusive Evidence

A sex education program that aims to reduce rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents by reducing the occurrence of sexual risk behaviors.

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) Inconclusive Evidence

A home visitation program that aims to facilitate caregiver behaviors that promote the healthy development of maltreated children and their ability to regulate emotion and behavior. It also aims to enhance sensitive, nurturing care among foster parents or other caregivers at high risk for maltreating their children.

Attention Academy Inconclusive Evidence

A mindfulness training program that aims to improve elementary school children’s learning experience by improving their ability to focus and deal with stressful situations.

Aussie Optimism Program Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based program that aims to reduce and prevent anxiety, depression, and suicidal behavior and promote social, emotional, and cognitive skills in school-aged children (6-11 years of age).

Availability, Responsiveness, and Continuity (ARC) Inconclusive Evidence

An organizational intervention designed to improve mental health service outcomes for youth by helping community-based service settings to improve their social contexts.

Aventuras Para Ninos Inconclusive Evidence

A multi-component intervention that aims to prevent and control childhood obesity among Latinos by changing the home/family and/or school/community environments.

Avon Park Youth Academy and Street Smart (APYA/SS) Inconclusive Evidence

An intensive vocational and educational training program that aims to promote life and community living skills and provide education and job training to facilitate self-sufficiency and a pro-social lifestyle. These goals are achieved by providing “real world” work experience and training on independent living skills within a normalized environment.

Be Smart – Don’t Start (also known as Smokefree Competition) Inconclusive Evidence

A school-based smoking prevention program that aims to delay or prevent the onset of smoking among adolescents.

BE smokeFREE Inconclusive Evidence

A classroom-based program designed to enhance self-efficacy in coping with pressure and reduce rates of smoking among high school students.

Be the Exception Inconclusive Evidence

A multimedia intervention designed to delay the onset of sexual behavior and decrease sexual risk factors among adolescents in middle school.

Becoming a Man Inconclusive Evidence

A violence prevention program that aims to reduce criminal behavior and improve school outcomes among disadvantaged male youth.

Becoming a Man (Juvenile Detention) Inconclusive Evidence

A juvenile justice program that aims to reduce recidivism among delinquent youth through treatment received while in juvenile detention.

Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART) Inconclusive Evidence

An HIV prevention program designed to promote access to information and refusal skills to increase abstinence and reduce or eliminate risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescents.

Behavioral Couples Therapy Inconclusive Evidence

A treatment program that aims to improve marital relationships and reduce substance abuse among men with substance-use problems.


Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development
University of Colorado Boulder
Institute of Behavioral Science
UCB 483, Boulder, CO 80309


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Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development is
currently funded by Arnold Ventures (formerly the Laura and John Arnold Foundation) and historically has received funding from the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.