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Planet Health

A two-year school-based health behavior intervention designed to reduce obesity among students in grades 6-8 by increasing energy expenditure while promoting key dietary behaviors.

Program Outcomes

  • Obesity

Program Type

  • School - Individual Strategies

Program Setting

  • School

Continuum of Intervention

  • Universal Prevention

Age

  • Early Adolescence (12-14) - Middle School

Gender

  • Both

Race/Ethnicity

  • All

Endorsements

Blueprints: Promising

Program Information Contact

Steven Gortmaker
Harvard Center for Children's Health
Harvard School of Public Health
677 Huntington Ave. 7th Floor
Boston, MA 02115
Website: www.hsph.harvard.edu.prc/projects/planet
Email: sgortmak@hsph.harvard.edu
Harvard Prevention Research Ctr: (617) 384-8919
Email: hprc@hsph.harvard.edu

Program Developer/Owner

Steven Gortmaker
Harvard School of Public Health


Brief Description of the Program

The Planet Health program is a two-year intervention designed to reduce obesity by increasing energy expenditure while promoting key dietary behaviors. The curriculum introduces and reinforces five simple health messages or goals: 1) Be physically active every day; 2) Limit your screen time to no more than two hours per day; 3) Eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables (combined) daily; 4) Eat more whole grains and less added sugar; and 5) Eat foods low in saturated fat and containing no trans fat. The Planet Health curriculum includes teacher training workshops, classroom lessons, PE materials and wellness sessions. Classroom components are designed to fit into 45-minute periods and are designed to be inter-disciplinary. Each program theme is addressed in one lesson per subject (language arts, math, science and social studies) for a total of 16 core lessons each in year 1 and year 2, for a total of 32 lessons.

Outcomes

Gortmaker et al. (1999)

  • The Planet Health intervention significantly reduced obesity among girls in the intervention schools, when compared to the control conditions.
  • The Planet Health intervention did not significantly reduce obesity among boys.
  • Planet Health girls reduced dietary intake, increased fruit and vegetable consumption and viewed less television than control girls.

Austin et al. (2005)

  • Girls in Planet Health intervention schools were less than half as likely to report purging or using diet pills at post-test compared with girls in control schools.

Brief Evaluation Methodology

Evaluation of the Planet Health intervention involved a randomized, controlled trial with 5 intervention and 5 control schools. The sample included 1,295 students from public schools in four urban Boston (MA) communities. Planet Health sessions were delivered within existing curricula using classroom teachers. Lessons focused on decreasing television viewing and consumption of high-fat foods, while increasing fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. Data were collected over two years: baseline data was collected on a cohort of students at the beginning of grades 6 and 7 in fall 1995, with post-test data collected in spring 1997 (grades 7 and 8).

Study 1

Gortmaker, S. Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A., Dixit, S., Fox, M., & Laird, N. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth. Archives of Pediatric& Adolescent Medicine, 153, 409-418.


Study 2

Austin, S., Field, A., Wiecha, J., Peterson, K., & Gortmaker, S. (2005). The impact of a school-based obesity prevention trial on disordered weight-control behaviors in early adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 159, 225-230.


Protective Factors

Individual: Exercise


* Risk/Protective Factor was significantly impacted by the program

Gender Specific Findings
  • Female
Race/Ethnicity Specific Findings
  • African American
Race/Ethnicity/Gender Details

The program influenced obesity outcomes for girls but not for boys. There is some evidence that the program works better for African American girls than white or Hispanic girls.

Professional Development for Teachers
Teacher training focuses on understanding how to effectively implement Planet Health into the middle school classroom. Training includes formal presentations on the U.S. trends in nutrition, physical activity, and inactivity; the importance of including schools in nutrition and physical activity efforts; how to use the Planet Health curriculum; and the core nutrition and physical activity messages. There are also opportunities for teachers to discuss concerns about students' nutrition and physical activity and how to frame conversations with youth about these topics. Teachers can be trained in the Planet Health curriculum through the following activities:

  • Planet Health Introductory Workshop Training: The Harvard School of Public Health Prevention Research Center can coordinate on-site training as was provided in the research trial on a case-by-case basis. Separate trainings are available for classroom teachers (3 hours of training) and physical education teachers (5 hours of training). The total cost of a day-long training that includes sessions for classroom and physical education teachers is $400 (plus travel). Staff from up to five middle schools may be included in one training day.
  • Self-guided training: PowerPoint training slides are available free of charge on the Harvard School of Public Health Prevention Research Center website https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/prc/projects/planet/ for programs who choose to conduct their own local training on Planet Health.

Please note that self-guided training is not certified by Blueprints and was not used in the evaluated studies.

Source: Washington State Institute for Public Policy
All benefit-cost ratios are the most recent estimates published by The Washington State Institute for Public Policy for Blueprint programs implemented in Washington State. These ratios are based on a) meta-analysis estimates of effect size and b) monetized benefits and calculated costs for programs as delivered in the State of Washington. Caution is recommended in applying these estimates of the benefit-cost ratio to any other state or local area. They are provided as an illustration of the benefit-cost ratio found in one specific state. When feasible, local costs and monetized benefits should be used to calculate expected local benefit-cost ratios. The formula for this calculation can be found on the WSIPP website.

Start-Up Costs

Initial Training and Technical Assistance

PowerPoint training slides are available free of charge on the Harvard School of Public Health Prevention Research Center website: https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/prc/projects/planet/. The Harvard School of Public Health Prevention Research Center can coordinate on-site training as was provided in the research trials on a case-by-case basis, but we do not currently have a funded, self-sustaining model to train teachers. Trainers are paid $50/hour for a total cost of $400 per day (plus travel). Trainers can train staff from up to five schools in one training day.

Curriculum and Materials

The Planet Health Book and CD cost $62.00, plus shipping, for each teacher.

Licensing

None.

Other Start-Up Costs

Other optional costs may include stipends for teachers (e.g., $25/hour: classroom teachers attend 3 hours of training, physical education teachers attend 5 hours of training), food ($10/participant for lunch), and fitness funds ($500/school) to help buy materials and equipment to supplement the curriculum.

Intervention Implementation Costs

Ongoing Curriculum and Materials

Ongoing costs are limited to a small amount of photocopying.

Staffing

The program is implemented by classroom and physical education teachers during the regular school day.

Other Implementation Costs

None.

Implementation Support and Fidelity Monitoring Costs

Ongoing Training and Technical Assistance

None.

Fidelity Monitoring and Evaluation

Planet Health includes planning sheets for schools as well as monthly and weekly planners. These can be used to assess fidelity by tracking who teaches each lesson and when the lessons are taught.

Ongoing License Fees

None.

Other Implementation Support and Fidelity Monitoring Costs

No information is available

Other Cost Considerations

None.

Year One Cost Example

Below is an example of Year One implementation of Planet Health in a middle school with 20 teachers implementing the program.

On-site training by the developer $400.00
Developer travel $1,500.00
20 sets of Planet Health Books CDs (excludes shipping) @ $62 each $1,240.00
Fitness funds $500.00
Total One Year Cost $3,640.00

If each teacher implemented the program with 20 students, the cost per student in Year One would be $9.10.

Funding Overview

Planet Health is an inexpensive program that is typically implemented by P.E., health education, and academic teachers during regular classroom time, so the allocation of teaching time is the most critical resource to sustaining the program. Existing school district funds for training and curricula purchases can potentially cover the relatively low-cost initial training and materials. Public health, education, and private foundation streams aimed at preventing obesity can also support the program.

Funding Strategies

Improving the Use of Existing Public Funds

No information is available

Allocating State or Local General Funds

Planet Health is a school-based program with low-cost training and materials. School districts may be able to allocate funds for the purchase of training and curricula in their professional development budgets. Some states have also created obesity prevention initiatives and funding streams that could support the implementation of Planet Health. State obesity prevention funds are typically administered through public health agencies.

Maximizing Federal Funds

Formula Funds:

  • Title V Maternal and Child Health Block Grant which funds public health activities aimed at supporting healthy pregnancy and childhood can support obesity prevention. State departments of health administer these funds and develop statewide priorities that are then carried out by local health departments. Some states have prioritized childhood obesity as a focus area for these funds.
  • Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds are administered to city and county governments and the public services portion of these funds (15%) can support a wide variety of human services, and are often administered through a competitive grant process at the local level. Community-based agencies partnering with schools to implement Planet Health could be positioned to access CDBG funds to support implementation.

Discretionary Grants:

  • The federal Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control (CDC), Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) administers discretionary grants to state governments, community organizations, and national organizations aimed at testing and implementing evidence-based strategies for preventing obesity. These include the Childhood Obesity Demonstration Project, Community Transformation Grants, Communities Putting Prevention to Work, and state grants. (See http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/stateprograms/cdc.html for more information.)
  • The federal Department of Education administers the Carol M. White Physical Education Program which awards funds to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) and community based organizations to initiate, expand, and improve physical education programs. (See http://www2.ed.gov/programs/whitephysed/index.html for more information.)

Foundation Grants and Public-Private Partnerships

There are a number of foundations that have prioritized the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles that could fund the training and curricula for Planet Health. Corporate giving programs and foundations from food industries as well as health care industries may have a particular interest in obesity prevention. Health conversion foundations, created when nonprofit hospitals convert to for-profit entities, also typically fund a portfolio of health access and promotion projects.

Debt Financing

No information is available

Generating New Revenue

No information is available

Data Sources

All information comes from the responses to a questionnaire submitted by Human Kinetics, Inc. and the Harvard School of Public Health Prevention Research Center to the Annie E. Casey Foundation

Program Developer/Owner

Steven GortmakerPlanet HealthHarvard School of Public HealthPrevention Research Center on Nutrition and Physical Activity677 Huntington Ave. 7th FloorBoston, MA 2115sgortmak@hsph.harvard.edu www.hsph.harvard.edu/prc/projects/planet

Program Outcomes

  • Obesity

Program Specifics

Program Type

  • School - Individual Strategies

Program Setting

  • School

Continuum of Intervention

  • Universal Prevention

Program Goals

A two-year school-based health behavior intervention designed to reduce obesity among students in grades 6-8 by increasing energy expenditure while promoting key dietary behaviors.

Target Population

Age

  • Early Adolescence (12-14) - Middle School

Gender

  • Both

Gender Specific Findings

  • Female

Race/Ethnicity

  • All

Race/Ethnicity Specific Findings

  • African American

Race/Ethnicity/Gender Details

The program influenced obesity outcomes for girls but not for boys. There is some evidence that the program works better for African American girls than white or Hispanic girls.

Other Risk and Protective Factors

Moderate and vigorous physical activity, television viewing, fruit and vegeable intake.

Risk/Protective Factor Domain

  • Individual

Risk/Protective Factors

Risk Factors

Protective Factors

Individual: Exercise


*Risk/Protective Factor was significantly impacted by the program

Brief Description of the Program

The Planet Health program is a two-year intervention designed to reduce obesity by increasing energy expenditure while promoting key dietary behaviors. The curriculum introduces and reinforces five simple health messages or goals: 1) Be physically active every day; 2) Limit your screen time to no more than two hours per day; 3) Eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables (combined) daily; 4) Eat more whole grains and less added sugar; and 5) Eat foods low in saturated fat and containing no trans fat. The Planet Health curriculum includes teacher training workshops, classroom lessons, PE materials and wellness sessions. Classroom components are designed to fit into 45-minute periods and are designed to be inter-disciplinary. Each program theme is addressed in one lesson per subject (language arts, math, science and social studies) for a total of 16 core lessons each in year 1 and year 2, for a total of 32 lessons.

Description of the Program

The Planet Health program is a two-year intervention designed to reduce obesity by increasing energy expenditure while promoting key dietary behaviors. The curriculum introduces and reinforces five simple health messages or goals: 1) Be physically active every day; 2) Limit your screen time to no more than two hours per day; 3) Eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables (combined) daily; 4) Eat more whole grains and less added sugar; and 5) Eat foods low in saturated fat and containing no trans fat.

The Planet Health curriculum includes teacher training workshops, classroom lessons, PE materials and wellness sessions. Classroom components are designed to fit into 45-minute periods and are designed to be inter-disciplinary, with program themes taught in language arts, math, science, and social studies. Each theme is taught in one lesson per subject, for a total of 16 core lessons each per year (32 total lessons over two years). Lessons consist of behavioral and learning objectives, homework activities, student resources and handouts. In addition to the classroom components, there is a 2-week awareness campaign designed to reduce television viewing.

Classroom teachers receive 3 hours of in-person training, while physical education teachers receive 5 hours of training. The training consists of an interactive PowerPoint presentation that models the methods of the program, engages the learners' current knowledge, promotes reflection and discussion, and encourages learners to compare their current knowledge and behaviors with those suggested by the book and to create plans and goals for the future.

The Planet Health intervention focuses on improving the activity and dietary behaviors of all students, therefore reducing the stigma associated with singling out youth who are already obese. This population-based approach aims to both reduce obesity among those who are already obese and prevent new cases.

Theoretical Rationale

The Planet Health intervention is based on concepts from behavioral-choice and social-cognitive theories of individual change. Behavioral-choice components of the intervention encourage participants to "make space" for more activity in their lives by reducing television time. The Planet Health intervention uses social-cognitive theory to illustrate the importance of social and environmental factors that influence both psychosocial and behavioral risk factors for obesity.

Theoretical Orientation

  • Behavioral

Brief Evaluation Methodology

Evaluation of the Planet Health intervention involved a randomized, controlled trial with 5 intervention and 5 control schools. The sample included 1,295 students from public schools in four urban Boston (MA) communities. Planet Health sessions were delivered within existing curricula using classroom teachers. Lessons focused on decreasing television viewing and consumption of high-fat foods, while increasing fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. Data were collected over two years: baseline data was collected on a cohort of students at the beginning of grades 6 and 7 in fall 1995, with post-test data collected in spring 1997 (grades 7 and 8).

Outcomes (Brief, over all studies)

Gortmaker et al. (1999)
Planet Health intervention had some success in reducing obesity among girls, but no significant differences were observed among boys. Reductions were found in self-reported television viewing among both boys and girls, and girls in the intervention schools experienced increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and a reduction in overall dietary intake.

Austin et al. (2005)
The Planet Health intervention resulted in a reduced risk of using self-induced vomiting/laxatives or diet pills to control weight in the past 30 days, among a subgroup of adolescent girls.

Outcomes

Gortmaker et al. (1999)

  • The Planet Health intervention significantly reduced obesity among girls in the intervention schools, when compared to the control conditions.
  • The Planet Health intervention did not significantly reduce obesity among boys.
  • Planet Health girls reduced dietary intake, increased fruit and vegetable consumption and viewed less television than control girls.

Austin et al. (2005)

  • Girls in Planet Health intervention schools were less than half as likely to report purging or using diet pills at post-test compared with girls in control schools.

Mediating Effects

Several secondary outcomes that were thought to be correlated with obesity were included in the analysis. Among girls, only television viewing was found to significantly predict obesity (OR = 0.85, p = .02) and mediate the intervention effect.

Effect Size

Gortmaker et al. (1999)
Effect sizes were small to medium for the two significant outcomes. Adjusted odds ratios were .47 for obesity prevention and 2.16 for obesity remission.

Austin et al. (2005)
Effect sizes were generally medium for the full sample of 480 girls, and large for girls who reported being non-dieters at baseline. Additionally, researchers estimate that 59% of disordered weight-control behavior among girls in control schools might have been prevented had they received the Planet Health intervention.

Generalizability

Research evidence shows that the program only works for girls. There were no results for boys. Specifically, the program works better for African American girls than for White or Hispanic girls.

Potential Limitations

Gortmaker et al. (1999); Austin et al. (2005)

  • The evaluation suffered from low participation rates. Only 65% of eligible students participated.
  • Dietary intake and physical activity measures were based on self-report, and potentially biased.
  • Some differences by race showed between the conditions at baseline.

Notes

In 2003, CDC researchers conducted an independent economic analysis of Planet Health based on estimated program costs of $14 per student per year (this cost estimate included teachers being paid for their training time). For every dollar spent on middle school Planet Health programs, researchers projected a savings of $1.20 in medical costs and lost wages by the time students reach middle age (40 to 65 years of age) (Wang et. al. 2003).

Endorsements

Blueprints: Promising

Program Information Contact

Steven Gortmaker
Harvard Center for Children's Health
Harvard School of Public Health
677 Huntington Ave. 7th Floor
Boston, MA 02115
Website: www.hsph.harvard.edu.prc/projects/planet
Email: sgortmak@hsph.harvard.edu
Harvard Prevention Research Ctr: (617) 384-8919
Email: hprc@hsph.harvard.edu

References

Study 1

Certified Gortmaker, S. Peterson, K., Wiecha, J., Sobol, A., Dixit, S., Fox, M., & Laird, N. (1999). Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth. Archives of Pediatric& Adolescent Medicine, 153, 409-418.

Study 2

Certified Austin, S., Field, A., Wiecha, J., Peterson, K., & Gortmaker, S. (2005). The impact of a school-based obesity prevention trial on disordered weight-control behaviors in early adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 159, 225-230.

Study 1

Evaluation Methodology

Design: Evaluation of the Planet Health intervention involved a randomized, controlled trial with 5 intervention and 5 control schools. Data were collected over two years: baseline data were collected on a cohort of students at the beginning of grades 6 and 7 in fall 1995, with post-test data collected in spring 1997 (grades 7 and 8). The sample included 1,295 students from public schools in four urban Boston (MA) communities. Post-test data were collected in spring 1997 on 83% of the baseline sample. Planet Health sessions were delivered within existing curricula using classroom teachers. Lessons focused on decreasing television viewing and consumption of high-fat foods, while increasing fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity.

Schools were the unit of randomization. Recruitment of schools was based on willingness to implement the classroom and physical education curriculum. Control schools received their usual health curricula and PE classes.

Recruitment: Baseline data were collected in fall 1995 on 1,560 students in both intervention and control schools. Overall participation rate was 64.5% in control schools and 64.8% in intervention schools. A total of five schools required active parental consent. Consent rates were 58% among schools with active consent and 89% among schools with passive consent. The analysis was based on 1,295 students who completed both baseline and post-test data.

Attrition: Post-test data were collected in spring 1997 on 83% of the baseline sample (n = 1,295). Students were excluded who transferred schools, were in special education classes or were in the wrong grade. It should be noted that students who completed the Spanish-language version of the questionnaire (5% of eligible students) were excluded from the analysis.

Sample: The sample used for analysis consisted of 1,295 students who completed both baseline and post-test assessments. Of these students, 48% were female and 52% male. Average student age was approximately 12 years old. Racial/ethnic breakdown was as follows: 66% white, 13% African American, 13% Hispanic, 8% Asian/Pacific Islander, 2% American Indian and 7% other.

Measures: The primary outcome measures were obesity prevalence, incidence and obesity remission (a reduction in obesity among those already obese). Obesity was defined using a composite indicator based on a body-mass index and a triceps skinfold value greater than (or equal to) age- and sex-specific 85th percentile. Researchers measured change in obesity from baseline (fall 1995) to post-test (spring 1997).

Secondary outcomes: Measures of television viewing, physical activity and dietary intake, as well as other sociodemographic and behavioral variables were obtained from a Food and Activity Survey completed by youth. The survey included an 11-item 'Television and Video' measure (estimate of total television viewing), a 16-item 'Youth Activity Questionnaire' (an estimate of time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity) and the 'Youth Food Frequency Questionnaire' (assessment of intake of fruits, vegetables and fat).

Analysis: Because schools were randomized, rather than students, a generalized estimated equation method was used to adjust for the individual-level covariates under cluster randomization, with schools nested within experimental conditions. Separate regression estimates were estimated for boys and girls. Analyses were conducted using an intent-to-treat protocol, with participants analyzed in their original randomized condition irrespective of the number of Planet Health sessions attended. To control for missing behavioral data, indicator variables with mean substitution were used. Researchers claim the mean substitution variables did not appear to affect the results of the analysis, but the technique is generally not appropriate.

Outcomes

The prevalence of obesity among girls in the Planet Health intervention schools was significantly reduced, when compared to girls in the control condition. There were no significant differences in obesity measures among boys.

Implementation fidelity: Implementation analysis revealed 87% of classroom teachers and 100% of PE teachers completed the training sessions. Classroom teachers reported they completed an average of 3.5 lessons per year (out of a minimum of 4 per subject). PE teachers reported they completed an average of 8.2 micro-units per year (out of 30).

Baseline equivalence: Prior to randomization, schools were matched and balanced for factors that could affect study outcomes. These included school size, ethnic composition, school food services and physical education curricula. There was a slight difference in median household income between the zip codes associated with intervention and control schools, with intervention schools averaging $36,020 and control schools averaging $34,200.

Baseline data stratified by sex revealed no significant differences among the 1,560 intervention and control students in mean values of age, body-mass index, triceps skinfold or obesity. There were some differences in ethnic composition: higher percentages of African American girls (17% vs 10%) and Hispanic boys (18% vs 12%) were in control schools.

Differential attrition: Post-test data were collected in spring 1997 on 83% of the baseline sample. For girls, data were collected for 82% of control and 81% of intervention students. For boys, data were collected for 86% of control and 83% of intervention students. Among girls, there were no significant baseline differences in rates of follow-up at baseline. For boys who were obese, a lower rate of follow-up was observed in the intervention condition (87% in the intervention vs 94% in the control condition).

Examining completers only, the intervention and control group had similar baseline sociodemographic, anthropometric, diet and physical activity data. Among girls, there was a difference in the prevalence of African American students (16% control vs 10% intervention), which is about the same distribution as at baseline.

Posttest

Obesity: There were significant results in 2 of 3 obesity measures for girls. When compared to girls in the control condition, girls in the Planet Health schools had significantly reduced obesity prevalence and significantly greater obesity remission. None of the three obesity outcomes for boys were significant.

There was some evidence that the program worked better for African-American girls than white or Hispanic girls.

Secondary outcomes: Among girls, 3 of 5 secondary outcome measures achieved significance. Girls in the intervention schools reported reduced dietary intake, increased fruit and vegetable consumption and less television viewing, when compared to girls in the control condition. Among boys, 1 of 5 secondary outcome measures achieved significance. Boys in the intervention schools reported less television viewing when compared to boys in the control condition.

Study 2

Evaluation Methodology

Design: This evaluation assessed the impact of the Planet Health intervention on use of self-induced vomiting and laxative use (purging) and diet pills to control weight in adolescent girls. The study used 480 girls in the intervention and control schools who reported no use of diet pills or purging at baseline. It excluded 21 girls who reported these activities at baseline. It then examined the effects of the intervention on the risk of reporting a new case of purging or diet pill use to control weight at post-test (21 months later).

Sample: The sample included a subgroup of 480 girls, age 10-14 (mean = 11.5 years). This subgroup was taken from a larger sample described in Gortmaker et al. (1999).

Measures: Survey items on dieting, vomiting or taking laxatives (purging), and taking diet pills in the last 30 days to control weight were combined to create a single disordered weight-control variable for analysis. The composite variable was composed of the following survey questions:

  • During the past 30 days, did you diet to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight?
  • During the past 30 days, did you vomit or take laxatives to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight?
  • During the past 30 days, did you take diet pills to lose weight or to keep from gaining weight?

Analysis: Data from 480 girls were used to examine the effects of the Planet Health intervention on the risk of reporting a new case of purging or diet pill use to control weight at post-test (21 months later). A generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to account for design effects due to clustered sampling by school. The authors estimated the odds of reporting disordered weight-control behavior in the past 30 days at post-test among girls who did not report use of purging or diet pills at baseline. Baseline dieting, age, obesity and ethnicity were used as covariates in multivariate models. Girls who reported purging or using diet pills at baseline were excluded from the analysis.

Outcomes

Baseline equivalence: Compared with girls in the intervention schools, a greater proportion of girls in the control schools were African American (9.1% vs 15.9%) at baseline. Therefore, ethnicity was included in all multivariate models. Control and intervention participants did not differ significantly in the distribution of age or prevalence of overweight or dieting in the past month.

Differential attrition: The cases used were subject to the same differential attrition as in Gortmaker et al. (1999).

Posttest: Girls in intervention schools were less than half as likely to report purging or using diet pills at post-test compared to girls in control schools (OR = 0.41).

Results appeared particularly strong among those who were non-dieters at baseline: among baseline non-dieters, girls in intervention schools were 12 times less likely than girls in control schools to report the use of purging or diet pills to control their weight at post-test.

Long-term: No follow-up data were gathered.

Contact

Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development
University of Colorado Boulder
Institute of Behavioral Science
UCB 483, Boulder, CO 80309

Email: blueprints@colorado.edu

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Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development is
currently funded by Arnold Ventures (formerly the Laura and John Arnold Foundation) and historically has received funding from the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.