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Programs That Have Not Met Blueprints Criteria

More than 90 percent of interventions we review do not receive Blueprints certification. Supported through funding from Arnold Ventures, Blueprints has extended its classification system to provide an evidence rating for interventions that fail to meet Blueprints certification standards. In providing descriptive information on common problems that disqualify interventions from Blueprints certification, we hope to offer concrete ways moving forward that will improve the methods and analyses employed in future program evaluation efforts.

In addition to rating the certified interventions that meet Blueprints criteria, non-certified interventions are also now rated based on whether they are ineffective, harmful, or lack strong evidence. Interventions lacking strong supportive evidence are generally reviewed and rated internally by Blueprints staff, though the advisory board may also conclude an intervention they have reviewed lacked sufficient evidence for certification despite having made it through the internal review process. The rating for non-certified interventions is on a continuum, from having no credible evaluations to having some non-experimental evidence, to having limited experimental evidence, to having very strong experimental evidence. Individual studies are rated on the continuum and the program receives the rating of the study with the highest level of evidence. All programs in our database are provided a rating based on specific review rationale.

The interventions that have been reviewed and rated as lacking strong evidence are as follows:

1419 Programs
Program Rating Brief Description
World of Words (WOW) Insufficient Evidence

A preschool program that aims to improve the word knowledge and conceptual development of preschool children through the use of taxonomic categorization and embedded multimedia. Lessons use video, audio, and pictures to extend students’ use of new vocabulary to describe things, solve problems, and draw generalizations and inferences.

Wraparound Services Model – Columbus, Ohio Insufficient Evidence

A wraparound services program for youth with complex needs and their families that aims to reduce subsequent arrests, school absences, school expulsion or suspension, running away from home, detention by police, and assaultive behaviors.

Wraparound Services Model – Milwaukee, Wisconsin Insufficient Evidence

A multipronged program to provide effective treatment and reduce out-of-home care for emotionally disturbed and delinquent youth with experience in the juvenile justice system. The program aims to reduce serious emotional, mental health and behavioral issues in this population.

X:IT Inconclusive Evidence

A year-long school-based program with a social influence approach that aims to reduce adolescent smoking through environmental, parental, and educational components.

Xtreme Reading Inconclusive Evidence

A classroom-based program for struggling adolescent readers that aims to bring their reading skills up to proficiency.

Yale Child Welfare Project Insufficient Evidence

A multipronged program for infants and their families that includes home visitation, pediatric care, daycare, and psychological services with the goal of supporting effective family functioning in high risk families. The program aims to impact child behavioral and psychological outcomes and family socioeconomics, among others.

Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program Insufficient Evidence

A multifaceted program that includes school-wide assemblies, peer leadership training, teacher training, outreach and education activities, and the implementation of a hotline toward the goal of increasing help-seeking for and by suicidal youth.

YMCA Youth Institute Insufficient Evidence

An intensive, year-round, community-based program for low-income, culturally diverse, urban high school youth. Aims include promoting readiness for higher education or career entry, improving academic achievement, stimulating interest in higher education, and ensuring that participants remain engaged in their schools and communities.

Young Adult Internship Program Under Review

A workforce development program intended to help young adults gain long-term, stable employment through an internship and other support services.

Young Parenthood Program (YPP) Inconclusive Evidence

A community or home-based counseling program for expectant adolescent couples that is designed to improve positive parenting by supporting interpersonal skill development.

Young People’s Development Programme Insufficient Evidence

A community-based, year-round teen pregnancy prevention program that offers youth development activities, sexuality education, substance misuse education, and referral to mental health and medical services including contraceptives.

Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) Insufficient Evidence

An after-school program that engages middle school students in community change projects in order to enhance positive youth development. Specific goals include increased community involvement, self-efficacy, and prosocial behavior.

Youth Experiencing Success in School (YESS) Express Insufficient Evidence

A school-based program with involvement of both teachers and parents that aims to increase the social, emotional, and behavioral functioning of young students with or at risk for developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Youth Fit 4 Life Inconclusive Evidence

An after-school program with the aim of reducing and preventing childhood obesity through teaching self-regulation skills, presenting nutritional information, and participating in physical activity.

Youth Matters Insufficient Evidence

A set of curricula for students in grades K-12 that use a series of age appropriate modules to reduce bullying, aggressive behavior, and victimization by emphasizing the negative consequences, improving prosocial attitudes, increasing self-efficacy, and enhancing social bonds.

Youth Safe Haven Insufficient Evidence

A community-based after-school program that seeks to generate positive changes in grades, attitudes, and behaviors among low-income and disadvantaged youth by partnering police officers with civilians in advocacy, mentoring, and tutoring initiatives.

YouthBuild Under Review

A full-time, comprehensive program aiming to help rehabilitate youth with troubled pasts by teaching them marketable skills and supporting them in completing their education. The program also seeks to reduce participants’ rates of criminal offense.

Zero In On Prevention Student Assistance Program (ZIP-SAP) Insufficient Evidence

A school-based program that aims to reduce drug use and antisocial behavior among the secondary school population.

Zippy’s Friends Insufficient Evidence

A school-based program designed to increase the coping repertoire of children between the ages of 6 and 8 by providing them with strategies to handle problems and emotional events.


Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development
University of Colorado Boulder
Institute of Behavioral Science
UCB 483, Boulder, CO 80309


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Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development is
currently funded by Arnold Ventures (formerly the Laura and John Arnold Foundation) and historically has received funding from the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.