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SNAP (Stop Now And Plan) Boys

Program Description: SNAP® Boys is a 13-week, multi-component treatment program for boys aged 6-11 years who have had police contact as a result of delinquency or who are at risk of police contact. SNAP® Boys is based on a cognitive behavioral model and focuses on the development and treatment of aggression and antisocial behavior and consists of five core components adapted from established interventions for children with conduct problem behaviors: (1) boys problem solving and self-control skills training group; (2) parent training group; (3) family counseling; (4) individual befriending; and (5) school support and reading tutoring. The primary objective of the program is to reduce police contact among a population which is at risk for engaging in criminal activity by decreasing the factors that place children at risk for continued delinquency and strengthening the protective factors of the parents, the child, and the family structure. The intervention is aimed at the child, the family, and the child-in-the-community, which have been found to yield the most positive long-term preventative effects.

Results: Blueprints has certified one study evaluating SNAP® Boys. Burke and Loeber (2014, 2016) conducted a randomized controlled trial in which 252 boys were randomized to intervention (n=130) or standard community services control (n=122) groups. Assessments were completed at baseline, upon program completion, and six and 12 months after program completion (though some participants continued to receive SNAP services through the follow-up periods). Twelve months after program completion, relative to controls, intervention participants had a lower number of criminal charges reported in official criminal records, and significantly lower scores on parent-ratings of:

  • aggressive behavior,
  • conduct problems,
  • externalizing behavior,
  • internalizing behavior,
  • withdrawn-depressed behavior,
  • anxious-depressed behavior,
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms,
  • oppositional defiant disorder symptoms,
  • depression symptoms,
  • separation anxiety symptoms.

Additionally, intervention boys had significantly higher scores on:

  • prosocial behaviors,
  • emotional regulation skills,
  • problem solving skills.

Characteristics of Study Sample as Reported by Study Authors:


Burke, J. D., & Loeber, R. (2014). The effectiveness of the Stop Now and Plan (SNAP) program for boys at risk for violence and delinquency. Prevention Science, 16, 242-253.

Burke, J. D., & Loeber, R. (2016). Mechanisms of behavioral and affective treatment outcomes in a cognitive behavioral intervention for boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44 (1), 179-189.

Read the Program Fact Sheet


Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development
University of Colorado Boulder
Institute of Behavioral Science
UCB 483, Boulder, CO 80309


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Blueprints for Healthy Youth Development is
currently funded by Arnold Ventures (formerly the Laura and John Arnold Foundation) and historically has received funding from the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.